Here are the main points in the global biodiversity deal adopted at COP15 in Montreal


MONTREAL – Negotiators in Montreal have adopted a new agreement aimed at halting the destruction of nature and beginning to repair the damage. Here are six of the main commitments in the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework.

30 by 30 — The framework’s signature pledge is the agreement to ensure 30 per cent of the world’s land, water, coast and marine areas fall under some form of conservation by 2030. Another target in the agreement stipulates that at least 30 per cent of degraded ecosystems need to be in the process of being restored by the end of the decade.

Financing — The agreement calls on countries to mobilize significant financial resources to fund nature promises. That includes a commitment to raise US$200 billion per year from all public, private, and philanthropic sources, as well as US$30 billion in annual aid to flow from richer countries to developing ones by 2030. Countries are also being asked to reduce subsidies to harmful industries, such as unsustainable agriculture, industrial fishing and oil and gas, and redirect them to more sustainable practices — a US$500 billion pledge.

Business accountability —Governments are expected to take measures to ensure large businesses and financial institutions monitor and disclose the impact of their activities on nature. Businesses are also expected to provide information to consumers to promote sustainable consumption choices and comply with regulations in place to reduce negative impacts on biodiversity.

Equity —Countries are expected to ensure Indigenous people and local communities are represented and included in decision-making, access to justice and information, while respecting their cultures, land rights and traditional knowledge. Women, youth, and people with disabilities are also included. A separate target calls on countries to ensure gender equality in the implementation of the framework.

Pollution and pesticides —Signatories are asked to reduce the negative impact of pollution from all sources to levels that aren’t harmful to nature by 2030. That includes halving the “overall risk” from pesticides and hazardous chemicals by the end of the decade, and working to eliminate plastic pollution.

Consumption —Governments are committing to help people make sustainable consumption choices through policy, regulation and education. By 2030, they are agreeing to reduce the global footprint of consumption in an equitable manner and cut global food waste in half.

This report by The Canadian Press was first published Dec. 19, 2022.

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